Kickball - Wikipedia
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An exit pupil of 2—3 mm is adequate for daytime use, though with less light available, an exit pupil of 5—7 mm is preferable, e.
Brightness Brightness is a relative value, obtained by squaring the diameter of the exit pupil. Larger relative brightness values mean brighter images.
However, this is not always the case as the amount of light the eye can absorb depends on the actual diameter of the pupil, which is different in bright and dark surroundings. How to read the numerical code The model names provide an overview about the most important features. The description 10x42 EXPS I means that this model offers 10x magnification and the objective lens diameter is 42 mm.
Eye relief The eye relief is the distance from the rear eyepiece lens to the eye point. A long eye relief provides comfortable viewing and ease of use without image black-out. Insufficient eye relief results in a loss of field of view.
For users who wear glasses, an eye relief with at least 14 mm is recommended. Prism types Porro prism left: Large lenses produce needle-sharp, bright images of brilliant quality and with a distinct sensation of depth.
The light is focused directly on the eyepiece. These binoculars can therefore be made lighter and more compact. There is evidence for schoolboys playing a "football" ball game in Aberdeen in some references cite which is notable as an early allusion to what some have considered to be passing the ball.
The word "pass" in the most recent translation is derived from "huc percute" strike it here and later "repercute pilam" strike the ball again in the original Latin. It is not certain that the ball was being struck between members of the same team. The original word translated as "goal" is "metum", literally meaning the "pillar at each end of the circus course" in a Roman chariot race.
There is a reference to "get hold of the ball before [another player] does" Praeripe illi pilam si possis agere suggesting that handling of the ball was allowed. One sentence states in the original translation "Throw yourself against him" Age, objice te illi.
France circa King Henry IV of England also presented one of the earliest documented uses of the English word "football", inwhen he issued a proclamation forbidding the levying of money for "foteball". This is the first description of a "kicking game" and the first description of dribbling: It is one in which young men, in country sport, propel a huge ball not by throwing it into the air but by striking it and rolling it along the ground, and that not with their hands but with their feet Carew described how goals were made: Similarly in a poem inMichael Drayton refers to "when the Ball to throw, And drive it to the Gole, in squadrons forth they goe".
Calcio Fiorentino In the 16th century, the city of Florence celebrated the period between Epiphany and Lent by playing a game which today is known as "calcio storico" "historic kickball" in the Piazza Santa Croce. The young aristocrats of the city would dress up in fine silk costumes and embroil themselves in a violent form of football.
For example, calcio players could punch, shoulder charge, and kick opponents. Blows below the belt were allowed. The game is said to have originated as a military training exercise. This is sometimes said to be the earliest code of rules for any football game. The game was not played after January until it was revived in May Official disapproval and attempts to ban football Main article: Attempts to ban football games There have been many attempts to ban football, from the middle ages through to the modern day.
The first such law was passed in England in ; it was followed by more than 30 in England alone between and Female footballers still face similar problems in some parts of the world. Establishment of modern codes Main article: English public school football games While football continued to be played in various forms throughout Britain, its public schools equivalent to private schools in other countries are widely credited with four key achievements in the creation of modern football codes.
First of all, the evidence suggests that they were important in taking football away from its "mob" form and turning it into an organised team sport. Second, many early descriptions of football and references to it were recorded by people who had studied at these schools.
Third, it was teachers, students and former students from these schools who first codified football games, to enable matches to be played between schools. Finally, it was at English public schools that the division between "kicking" and "running" or "carrying" games first became clear. The earliest evidence that games resembling football were being played at English public schools — mainly attended by boys from the upper, upper-middle and professional classes — comes from the Vulgaria by William Herman in Herman had been headmaster at Eton and Winchester colleges and his Latin textbook includes a translation exercise with the phrase "We wyll playe with a ball full of wynde".
Mulcaster's writings refer to teams "sides" and "parties"positions "standings"a referee "judge over the parties" and a coach " trayning maister ". Mulcaster's "footeball" had evolved from the disordered and violent forms of traditional football: Wedderburn refers to what has been translated into modern English as "keeping goal" and makes an allusion to passing the ball "strike it here".
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There is a reference to "get hold of the ball", suggesting that some handling was allowed. It is clear that the tackles allowed included the charging and holding of opposing players "drive that man back". The gates are called Goals. He also mentions tactics "leaving some of their best players to guard the goal" ; scoring "they that can strike the ball through their opponents' goal first win" and the way teams were selected "the players being equally divided according to their strength and nimbleness".
He is the first to describe a "law" of football: In particular, they devised the first offside rules, during the late 18th century. Players were not allowed to pass the ball forward, either by foot or by hand.
They could only dribble with their feet, or advance the ball in a scrum or similar formation. However, offside laws began to diverge and develop differently at each school, as is shown by the rules of football from Winchester, RugbyHarrow and Cheltenhamduring between and They had neither the time nor the inclination to engage in sport for recreation and, at the time, many children were part of the labour force.
Feast day football played on the streets was in decline. Public school boys, who enjoyed some freedom from work, became the inventors of organised football games with formal codes of rules. Football was adopted by a number of public schools as a way of encouraging competitiveness and keeping youths fit.
Each school drafted its own rules, which varied widely between different schools and were changed over time with each new intake of pupils. Two schools of thought developed regarding rules. Some schools favoured a game in which the ball could be carried as at Rugby, Marlborough and Cheltenhamwhile others preferred a game where kicking and dribbling the ball was promoted as at Eton, Harrow, Westminster and Charterhouse.
The division into these two camps was partly the result of circumstances in which the games were played. For example, Charterhouse and Westminster at the time had restricted playing areas; the boys were confined to playing their ball game within the school cloistersmaking it difficult for them to adopt rough and tumble running games.
This act is usually said to be the beginning of Rugby football, but there is little evidence that it occurred, and most sports historians believe the story to be apocryphal. The act of 'taking the ball in his arms' is often misinterpreted as 'picking the ball up' as it is widely believed that Webb Ellis' 'crime' was handling the ball, as in modern soccer, however handling the ball at the time was often permitted and in some cases compulsory,  the rule for which Webb Ellis showed disregard was running forward with it as the rules of his time only allowed a player to retreat backwards or kick forwards.
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The boom in rail transport in Britain during the s meant that people were able to travel further and with less inconvenience than they ever had before.
Inter-school sporting competitions became possible. However, it was difficult for schools to play each other at football, as each school played by its own rules.
The solution to this problem was usually that the match be divided into two halves, one half played by the rules of the host "home" school, and the other half by the visiting "away" school.
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Chicago Cubs owner Philip K. Wrigley led the formation of the All-American Girls Professional Baseball League to help keep the game in the public eye. Jackie Robinson was signed by the National League's Brooklyn Dodgers and began playing for their minor league team in Montreal. Regular-season interleague play was introduced in and the second-highest attendance mark for a full season was set.
While their identities were maintained for scheduling purposes and the designated hitter distinctionthe regulations and other functions—such as player discipline and umpire supervision—they had administered separately were consolidated under the rubric of MLB.
There had long been suspicions that the dramatic increase in power hitting was fueled in large part by the abuse of illegal steroids as well as by the dilution of pitching talent due to expansionbut the issue only began attracting significant media attention in and there was no penalty for the use of performance-enhancing drugs before History of baseball Widely known as America's pastime, baseball is well established in several other countries as well.
As early asa professional league, the International Associationfeatured teams from both Canada and the US.
Playing for the Central League 's Yomiuri Giants —80Oh set the professional world record for home runs. The Dominican Republic held its first islandwide championship tournament in It remained part of the Games. The inaugural Classicheld in Marchwas the first tournament involving national teams to feature a significant number of MLB participants.
All of these sports use a clock;  in all of them, play is less individual and more collective;  and in none of them is the variation between playing fields nearly as substantial or important. In contrast, baseball has no clock; a team cannot win without getting the last batter out and rallies are not constrained by time.
At almost any turn in any baseball game, the most advantageous strategy is some form of aggressive strategy. At the turn of the 20th century, games typically took an hour and a half to play. In the s, they averaged just less than two hours, which eventually ballooned to 2: InNippon Professional Baseball took steps aimed at shortening games by 12 minutes from the preceding decade's average of 3: This was up 10 minutes from and 21 minutes from