Dating back to the establishment of

History of Football - The Origins - depanama.info

dating back to the establishment of

The history of sports may extend as far back as the beginnings of military training, with Cave paintings in the Bayankhongor Province of Mongolia dating back to Neolithic age of BCE show a wrestling match surrounded by crowds. The Olympics Games that we know and celebrate today stem from events that were held thousands of years ago in Ancient Greece. Established: Physical Address: National Archives Building 12th Street included government correspondence dating back to the early 19th century.

History of Hawaii Hawaiian history is inextricably tied into a larger Polynesian phenomenon. The many island cultures within the Polynesian Triangle share similar languages derived from a proto-Malayo-Polynesian language used in Southeast Asia 5, years ago. Polynesians also share cultural traditions, such as religion, social organization, myths, and material culture. Anthropologists believe that all Polynesians have descended from a South Pacific proto-culture created by an Austronesian Malayo-Polynesian people that had migrated from Southeast Asia.

Others believe that there was only a single, extended period of settlement. History of Indonesia In the history of Indonesia, Austronesian peoplewho form the majority of the modern population, migrated to South East Asia from Taiwan. Ideal agricultural conditions, and the mastering of wet-field rice cultivation as early as the 8th century BC, [6] allowed villages, towns, and small kingdoms to flourish by the 1st century AD.

However, archaeological evidence indicates that people were living on the islands of Japan as early as the upper paleolithic period. History of Kiribati In the history of Kiribati, the islands which now form the Republic of Kiribati have been inhabited for at least seven hundred years, and possibly much longer.

dating back to the establishment of

The initial Micronesian population, which remains the overwhelming majority today, was visited by Polynesian and Melanesian invaders before the first European sailors "discovered" the islands in the 16th century. For much of the subsequent period, the main island chain, the Gilbert Islandswas ruled as part of the British Empire. The country gained its independence in and has since been known as Kiribati.

History of Malaysia History of Malaysia is the written past of a country in South East Asia whose strategic sea-lane position brought trade and foreign influences that fundamentally influenced its history. Hindu India, the Islamic Middle East and Christian Europe to its west, and China and Japan to the north-east were major influences brought by shipping routes passing through the region. Malaysian history is also intertwined with that of neighbouring IndonesiaSingaporePhilippinesBrunei and Thailand.

This trade and foreign cultures brought the area great wealth and diversity, but has also domination and colonialism. The history of Malaysia is one of successive phases of outside influence, followed by the midth century establishment of independence from foreign colonial powers. New Caledonia[ edit ] In the history of New Caledoniathe diverse group of people that settled over the Melanesian archipelagos are known as the Lapita.

The Lapita were highly skilled navigators and agriculturists with influence over a large area of the Pacific.

dating back to the establishment of

From about the 11th century Polynesians also arrived and mixed with the populations of the archipelago. Europeans first sighted New Caledonia and the Loyalty Islands in the late 18th century.

During the same voyage he also named the islands to the north of New Caledonia the New Hebrides now Vanuatuafter the islands north of Scotland. From the late 18th century, the country was regularly visited by explorers and other sailors, missionaries, traders and adventurers. There was extensive European and some Asian settlement throughout the rest of the century. From the s the New Zealand parliament enacted a number of progressive initiatives, including women's suffrage and old age pensions.

From the s the economy was highly regulated and an extensive welfare state was developed. In the s the economy was largely deregulated and a number of socially liberal policies, such as decriminalisation of homosexuality, were put in place. Foreign policy, which had previously consisted mostly of following Britain or the United States, became more independent. Subsequent governments have generally maintained these policies, although tempering the free market ethos somewhat.

Niue Island[ edit ] The history of the Niue Island can be traced back to a 1, years when the Polynesian settles came here. Traces of Pukapulan dialect are still there in the native language which is based on the Samoan and Tongan language. The Polynesian settlers were raters isolated as there was very little inter island trade and the existence of the limestone island was in itself very difficult due to lack of rivers and cultivable soil.

The modern history of Niue can be traced back to the s with the arrival of Captain James Cook. Cook described the island as "Savage Island" in his records as the natives were not very welcoming to strangers. This was in complete contrast to the Tongans he described as "The Friendly Islands". Captain Cook tried to set his foot thrice on the island but was repulsed each of the three times. The natives at that time were quite hostile to strangers.

Christianity was brought to the island by Peniamina in the year when he got converted during his stay at Samoa. The islanders were completely converted to Christianity by the end of the 19th century.

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  • History of Football - The Origins

Colonization took place thereafter and the island was declared as a part of the British Empire. The island country became independent in but still have a free association agreement with New Zealand and many of its citizens have become citizens of New Zealand.

Now the Island country has a democracy and is governed by a legislative assembly consisting of 20 members. Niue is the smallest democracy in the world.

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Papua New Guinea[ edit ] Main article: The written history began when European navigators first sighted New Guinea in the early part of the 16th century. Portuguese explorers first arrived from the west and later Spanish navigators from the east, after crossing the Pacific. Archaeological evidence indicates that humans arrived on New Guinea at least 60, years ago, probably by sea from Southeast Asia during an ice age period when the sea was lower and distances between islands shorter.

For an overview of the geological history of the continent of which New Guinea is a part, see Australia — New Guinea. Although the first arrivals were hunter-gatherersearly evidence shows that people managed the forest environment to provide food. There are indications that gardening was being practised at the same time that agriculture was developing in Mesopotamia and Egypt.

History of the Philippines In the beginning of the history of the Philippines, the arrival of the first humans via land bridges at least 30, years ago. British Prime Minister John Major was more explicit in We invented the majority of the world's great sports European colonialism certainly helped spread particular games around the world, especially cricket not directly related to baseballfootball of various sorts, bowling in a number of forms, cue sports like snookercarom billiardsand poolhockey and its derivatives, equestrianand tennisand many winter sports.

The originally Europe-dominated modern Olympic Games generally also ensured standardization in particularly European, especially British, directions when rules for similar games around the world were merged. With the advent of mass media and global communication, professionalism became prevalent in sports, and this furthered sports popularity in general. With the increasing values placed on those who won also came the increased desire to cheat.

Some of the most common ways of cheating today involve the use of performance-enhancing drugs such as steroids. The use of these drugs has always been frowned on but in recent history there have also been agencies set up to monitor professional athletes and ensure fair play in the sport.

The Long Parliament in "banned theatres, which had met with Puritan disapproval. Although similar action would be taken against certain sports, it is not clear if cricket was in any way prohibited, except that players must not break the Sabbath". In"the Restoration of the monarchy in England was immediately followed by the reopening of the theatres and so any sanctions that had been imposed by the Puritans on cricket would also have been lifted.

It is certain that cricket, horse racing and boxing i. Leech explains that it was the habit of cricket patrons, all of whom were gamblers, to form strong teams through the 18th century to represent their interests.

He defines a strong team as one representative of more than one parish and he is certain that such teams were first assembled in or immediately after Prior to the English Civil War and the Commonwealth, all available evidence concludes that cricket had evolved to the level of village cricket only where teams that are strictly representative of individual parishes compete. The "strong teams" of the post-Restoration mark the evolution of cricket and, indeed of professional team sport, for cricket is the oldest professional team sport from the parish standard to the county standard.

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This was the point of origin for major, or first-classcricket. The year also marks the origin of professional team sport. A number of the public schools such as Winchester and Etonintroduced variants of football and other sports for their pupils. These were described at the time as "innocent and lawful", certainly in comparison with the rougher rural games.

With urbanization in the 19th century, the rural games moved to the new urban centres and came under the influence of the middle and upper classes. The rules and regulations devised at English institutions began to be applied to the wider game, with governing bodies in England being set up for a number of sports by the end of the 19th century.

The rising influence of the upper class also produced an emphasis on the amateur, and the spirit of " fair play ". The industrial revolution also brought with it increasing mobility, and created the opportunity for universities in Britain and elsewhere to compete with one another.

This sparked increasing attempts to unify and reconcile various games in England, leading to the establishment of the Football Association in London, the first official governing body in football. For sports to become professionalized, coaching had to come first. It gradually professionalized in the Victorian era and the role was well established by In the First World War, military units sought out the coaches to supervise physical conditioning and develop morale-building teams. A number of major teams elsewhere in the world still show these British origins in their names, such as A.

Cricket became popular in several of the nations of the then British Empire, such as Australia, South Africa, India and Pakistan, and remain popular in and beyond today's Commonwealth of Nations. The revival of the Olympic Games by Baron Pierre de Coubertin was also heavily influenced by the amateur ethos of the English public schools. There is documented evidence of baseball in england. London, England CNN -- An extract from an 18th-century diary containing the oldest known reference to baseball is among the items on display in a new exhibition in London exploring the English origins and cricketing connections of America's national sport.

While baseball was once claimed to have been invented in the U. One notable discovery found in a shed in a village in Surrey, southern England, in was a handwritten 18th-century diary belonging to a local lawyer, William Bray. Drank tea and stayed til 8. The rise of baseball also helped squeeze out other sports such as cricket, which had been popular in Philadelphia prior to the rise of baseball.

American football and gridiron football more generally also has its origins in the English variants of the game, with the first set of intercollegiate football rules based directly on the rules of the Football Association in London.

However, Harvard chose to play a game based on the rules of Rugby football.