ᐅᐅ Radiocarbon dating math exploration
The half-life of the decay of 14C to nitrogen is years so the concentration halves every years. A practical limit for accurate dating is 26, years (in. Carbon dating math - How to get a good woman. It is not Libby, it's carbon is radioactive decay independent practice problems, among top gaming sites. Radiometric dating or radioactive dating is a technique used to date materials such as rocks or . The mathematical expression that relates radioactive decay to geologic time is . The carbon dating limit lies around 58, to 62, years.
Thus, we can write: Simplifying this expression by canceling the N0 on both sides of the equation gives. Solving for the unknown, k, we take the natural logarithm of both sides. Thus, our equation for modeling the decay of 14C is given by. Other radioactive isotopes are also used to date fossils. The half-life for 14C is approximately years, therefore the 14C isotope is only useful for dating fossils up to about 50, years old.
BioMath: Carbon Dating
Fossils older than 50, years may have an undetectable amount of 14C. For older fossils, an isotope with a longer half-life should be used. When dealing with scientific problems, all we can hope to do is to choose the assumptions that is most probable. This breaks down to simple beliefs. Most will make assumptions in their work that is in accordance to their convictions, be they religious, speculative, or based on scientific theory.
Most scientists choose to assume the views held by the majority of their colleagues in the scientific community. I choose instead to assume that the Bible is a good tool for determining what has happened in the past. I do this because of my relationship with Jesus Christ. Why did I ever become a creationist? In addition, I see that the physical data seen in the natural world can agree with the Biblical story if certain assumptions are taken.
Science and The Bible can agree with each other. If the C concentration in our Biosphere dramatically increased after the flood, as portrayed in the above graph by the solid blue line, then we should see some direct indication of it in the world around us. On the other hand, it must be realized that anomalous younger or older dates are often removed from publication because the investigators hold in very high regard the long age uniformitarian assumptions used by the majority of scientist in the world today.
Ariel Roth, in his book Origins, Linking Science and Scripture shows an example where the anomalous younger dates were removed from later publications. The sequence was 9, 12, 27, 17, and 15, carbon years.
A later publication removed the obviously anomalous younger 17, and 15, measurements. Both papers are listed in the bottom of this web page. This kind of "purification" of the data is done openly and with honest motives because of their faith in the vast knowledge base of scientific study that supports the idea of long age uniformitarianism and Evolutionary thought.
So it is possible that much of the clues that could have indicated a rapid shift in Biosphere C are not found in the published data. But we do have some evidence that can support the assumptions needed for a short age chronology.
Let's explore three different lines of reasoning that uses data to support the alternative view of a global flood. Some of the information represents research that is currently being conducted. They are as following: Anomalous fossil C Dates. Does Coal have a residual level of C left from before the Flood? They are illustrated in the graphic below. If an animal is living during a time when Carbon levels are rising rapidly, we might expect different portions of the animals body to have different levels of Carbon This would make sense since an animal is always incorporating new carbon in the growing process.
Areas of the body which grow faster would exhibit the higher levels of Carbon of the later life of the animal. Areas of the body which grow more slowly or have stopped growing should exhibit the lower levels of Carbon when the animal was younger. Hair grows fairly fast, so we might expect the Carbon levels to be especially high.
The examples to the left show the kinds of differences we might expect. At least these examples suggest the possibility of a fairly unstable concentration of Carbon in the Biosphere. Unfortunately Carbon dates are not as simple as they may seem to be. Often so called odd dates are determined from specimens that the actual age is known.
One reason for this is the "reservoir effect". The reservoir effect is a situation where the local environment where a specimen is living is less than the normal level of Carbon for the Biosphere at large. Ariel Roth, comments in his book Origins, Linking Science and Scripture that most living marine specimens from the world's oceans date at least several hundred years old. Also, some aquatic mosses now living in Iceland date around 6, to 8, years old.
In Nevada, living snails give apparent ages of 27, years old. If the global flood occurred four or so thousand years ago, we might not expect all of the Biosphere to be at equilibrium. C concentrations in the marine environment may not equal the C concentrations in the rest of the Biosphere because the equilibrium may not be reached yet.
The example in Iceland is because of hot vents which force a local lowering of the C concentration. There are other kinds of problems with Carbon dates such as the exchange of C atoms with other carbon atoms. Marine shells in Hawaii show younger dates if preserved in volcanic ash instead of limestone.
The original references for this data is also at the end of this web page. So we would be hard pressed to say that the differences in the dates that we see in these fossils are fully due to a rapidly increasing C concentration. However, who is to say that the increasing C in the biosphere wasn't a factor? In addition, it is possible that the C concentrations are not fully at equilibrium.
Obviously we need better evidence.
How Good Are Those Young-Earth Arguments?
More work needs to be done on this problem. For the most part, the profile or gradient of C concentrations in ancient sediment and peat accumulations agree with a short-age chronology position. Looking at the graph to the right we see a straight line with three possible starting points. Two of the possibilities force the straight line to curve in the initial portion of the line.
For constant real-time accumulation of ancient sediments; The B-type profile is what we would expect to find if the C concentration in the Biosphere was constant during the time the sediments were formed. This linear gradient is possible only if no compaction takes place or if the compaction is taken into account. The A-type profile is what would be expected if the C concentration in the early Biosphere was higher than expected.
The C-type profile is what would be expected if the C concentration was initially much lower than what is seen in today's Biosphere. The C-type profile is of course what would be expected with the global flood. All three profile types appear in ancient sediments and peat accumulations; However, close to two thirds of all profile data in the literature are of the C-type.
Robert Brown who originally looked at the data, suggests that: Brown also saw that some of the sediment exhibited a more rapid early stage than was found in the later stages. He saw that this more rapid early sediment development could easily account for the various A-type and B-type profiles found in the literature. When the early development is compensated for, the graph usually will straighten out or even reverse into a C-type profile.
This particular line of evidence is more complicated than I am addressing it. For further study, look at Dr. Brown's work in the references below. Rampart Cave in the grand wash cliffs of the lower end of the Grand Canyon is an extreme example of a C-type profile sediment. There is approximately cm of animal dung, mainly from the American three-toed sloth. As can be seen from the graph to the right, the C concentration increasingly decreases in the deeper sediments. This can be seen in the concordia diagram, where the samples plot along an errorchron straight line which intersects the concordia curve at the age of the sample.
Samarium—neodymium dating method[ edit ] Main article: Samarium—neodymium dating This involves the alpha decay of Sm to Nd with a half-life of 1. Accuracy levels of within twenty million years in ages of two-and-a-half billion years are achievable. Potassium—argon dating This involves electron capture or positron decay of potassium to argon Potassium has a half-life of 1.
Rubidium—strontium dating method[ edit ] Main article: Rubidium—strontium dating This is based on the beta decay of rubidium to strontiumwith a half-life of 50 billion years. This scheme is used to date old igneous and metamorphic rocksand has also been used to date lunar samples.
Closure temperatures are so high that they are not a concern.
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Rubidium-strontium dating is not as precise as the uranium-lead method, with errors of 30 to 50 million years for a 3-billion-year-old sample. Uranium—thorium dating method[ edit ] Main article: Uranium—thorium dating A relatively short-range dating technique is based on the decay of uranium into thorium, a substance with a half-life of about 80, years.
It is accompanied by a sister process, in which uranium decays into protactinium, which has a half-life of 32, years. While uranium is water-soluble, thorium and protactinium are not, and so they are selectively precipitated into ocean-floor sedimentsfrom which their ratios are measured. The scheme has a range of several hundred thousand years.
A related method is ionium—thorium datingwhich measures the ratio of ionium thorium to thorium in ocean sediment. Radiocarbon dating method[ edit ] Main article: Carbon is a radioactive isotope of carbon, with a half-life of 5, years,   which is very short compared with the above isotopes and decays into nitrogen.
Carbon, though, is continuously created through collisions of neutrons generated by cosmic rays with nitrogen in the upper atmosphere and thus remains at a near-constant level on Earth. The carbon ends up as a trace component in atmospheric carbon dioxide CO2.
A carbon-based life form acquires carbon during its lifetime. Plants acquire it through photosynthesisand animals acquire it from consumption of plants and other animals.
When an organism dies, it ceases to take in new carbon, and the existing isotope decays with a characteristic half-life years. The proportion of carbon left when the remains of the organism are examined provides an indication of the time elapsed since its death.
This makes carbon an ideal dating method to date the age of bones or the remains of an organism. The carbon dating limit lies around 58, to 62, years. However, local eruptions of volcanoes or other events that give off large amounts of carbon dioxide can reduce local concentrations of carbon and give inaccurate dates. The releases of carbon dioxide into the biosphere as a consequence of industrialization have also depressed the proportion of carbon by a few percent; conversely, the amount of carbon was increased by above-ground nuclear bomb tests that were conducted into the early s.
How Good are those Young-Earth Arguments: Radiocarbon Dating
Also, an increase in the solar wind or the Earth's magnetic field above the current value would depress the amount of carbon created in the atmosphere. Fission track dating method[ edit ] Main article: This involves inspection of a polished slice of a material to determine the density of "track" markings left in it by the spontaneous fission of uranium impurities.
The uranium content of the sample has to be known, but that can be determined by placing a plastic film over the polished slice of the material, and bombarding it with slow neutrons. This causes induced fission of U, as opposed to the spontaneous fission of U.
The fission tracks produced by this process are recorded in the plastic film. The uranium content of the material can then be calculated from the number of tracks and the neutron flux.